Planets Could Form Around Black Holes! | SciShow News

Planets Could Form Around Black Holes! | SciShow News

[ intro ] Just in case you need something to keep you
up at night. we can’t see them directly, astronomers estimate our galaxy is peppered with anywhere from ten million to a billion
black holes. They’re all remnants of stars whose cores collapsed into infinitesimally
small points. And while each is bizarre and braain-bendy
in its own way, models tell us that these objects at least
have limits. But, then again… our models are sometimes
wrong. Like, picture a star with a composition similar
to the Sun’s, but much bigger. According to models, the biggest black hole made from a single
star like that couldn’t exceed twenty-five solar masses. Except… astronomers just found one weighing in at
more than twice that. They published their mystery last week in
the journal Nature. And it might require rethinking exactly how
massive stars evolve. This black hole was found while astronomers
were looking at data from a star about eight times more
massive than the Sun. It’s called LB-1, and the paper’s authors calculated that it’s roughly fourteen thousand light-years
away. Based on patterns in the star’s light, they found that the star was moving — getting closer to, then farther from Earth
over a period of about seventy-nine Earth days. That indicated it was orbiting something. Something the team couldn’t detect. Still, even though they couldn’t see the
mystery object, they could use data from LB-1 to estimate
its mass. And the results were pretty telling. Based on the calculations, the smallest possible
mass for this object — just based on how the star was moving
— was about six solar masses. Technically, that means it could be star. But a star that massive would be bright enough
for us to detect it. So, instead, the team proposed this companion had to be a black hole. After analyzing more data, they estimated that the actual mass of this
thing is between fifty-five and seventy-nine times
the mass of our Sun. And that’s where things get messy. Because those numbers are more than twice
the mass we thought possible given the black hole’s
surroundings. See, both LB-1 and the surrounding area contain
a decent amount of elements other than hydrogen and helium. And according to models, single stars can’t form huge black holes
in that kind of environment. They should lose too much material at the
end of their lives. So if they do become black holes, they should
peak around twenty-five solar masses. Not fifty-five to seventy-nine. So this discovery might mean we need to go
back and modify our models for how stars evolve. But it may also mean that something else is
going on. For instance, the authors of this paper have
suggested that, well, maybe LB-1’s black hole didn’t come from
a single star after all. Maybe, this system used to have three stars
— but after one collapsed into a black hole,
it ate one of the remaining two. Alternatively, maybe there are two, less-massive
black holes here, and they’re orbiting each other so closely
that we can’t tell them apart. Of course, it could also turn out that the
distance measurements of LB-1 are incorrect, since some of the team’s data do disagree
with other sources. And that would seriously mess up the math. But regardless of how that plays out, this
black hole will still be special. Right now, it’s the only stellar-mass black
hole we’ve found that can’t be observed in
the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. That means it’s not stealing gas off its
companion star, and it’s not actively consuming matter. So this discovery could mean there’s an entire population of these secret
black hole companions, just waiting to be found. In other black holes news, a group of astronomers
published a paper last week in The Astrophysical Journal with evidence that planets — planets! — could apparently form around
supermassive black holes. And I don’t mean, like, the black hole’s
gravity captured them. I mean planets could form around black holes
like they do around stars. Just when you think you understand the universe, black holes show up and ruin everything!] It does give me context though, I’m glad that our planet is orbiting ‘not
a black hole’ According to the paper, the action happens
in what’s called the circumnuclear disk. This is a thin disk of dust and gas a ways
away from the black hole — much farther than the accretion disk that
feeds the thing. Out there, the black hole’s gravity isn’t
overpowering, so particles could collect into a giant ball
of rock. But if you’re going to make a planet around
a black hole, you don’t just need distance. Your circumnuclear disk also needs to be dense. Partly because, well, you need a lot of stuff
to make a planet. But also, because you need something to block
radiation from the accretion disk. Otherwise, the outer region of the circumnuclear
disk will be too hot, and grains of ice and dust won’t be able
to stay solid and bind together. In theory, black holes should be able to check
these boxes, no problem. But in the new paper, one team decided to
actually test this. They applied current models for planetary
formation to the circumnuclear disk of a supermassive black hole that was actively eating matter. And their model generated eighty-five thousand
planets, each about ten times the mass of Earth and
orbiting at various distances. Admittedly, the planet-making process didn’t
happen quite like normal. Among other things, the planets took about
four hundred million years to form, which is several times longer than what happened
in our solar system. But hey, they formed around a supermassive
black hole. It makes sense that things would happen differently. These results are amazing to think about,
but they only came from a model. We’re still a very long way from finding
planets like this — if they’re really out there. After all, it was only this year that we managed
to image the shadow of a supermassive black hole. Finding a planet amongst all of that will
be way more difficult. The authors actually point out the usual methods
of finding planets are, and I quote, “hopeless.” But there could… maybe… possibly… be something in X-ray or radio wave data. Still, when you think about it, it used to be impossible to detect any planets
around other stars — so who knows what we’ll be capable of in
the future? Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
Space News! Before you go, we’ve got two quick announcements
for you. First, this episode is brought to you by our
President of Space, SR Foxley! SR is one of our patrons on Patreon and is part of the community that keeps SciShow
going. So, thanks for your support! And also! It’s December, which means it’s calendar-shopping time! If you’re in the market for a 2020 calendar,
consider checking out our lunar calendar. It’s super satisfying to look at and displays
the phase of the moon for every day of the year. So you can always know what’s going on up
there. You can find them in our merch shelf below,
or at [ outro ]

100 thoughts on “Planets Could Form Around Black Holes! | SciShow News”

  1. So that means the part in the movie interstellar where there was a planet revolving around the black hole is kinda accurate.

  2. Maybe you could rephrase the line "Scientists have discovered a black hole that could possibly everything we know about black holes" into "Scientists have discovered a black hole that could possibly change everything we know about black holes".

  3. You know when I was in college back a long time ago when I was catching a dino to go to school. Lol. But I remember my professor said that our Galaxy hold a bout 500 million to 1 billion stars. Now the number I grew up with, has blown up in to 500 million to a couple billion stars. Now to here that the number of stars I was told we had now could be the number of black holes. Lmao people. I'm out dated now and think if I wanted to back to work in astrophysics, id have to go back to school and its hard to teach old dogs new tricks.

  4. Would life in a Black.. Holar system have a completely unique biology or would it use energy from stellar objects closer to the black hole? Like a binary system.

  5. Funny, LB-1 is also the name of the holotypic fossil of Homo floresiensis. Clearly, the only logical explanation is that Homo floresiensis are from a planet orbiting the LB-1 black hole.

  6. "Just when you think you understand the universe black holes show up and ruin everything."

    Black holes have entered the chat.

  7. LB1 could be from Population III stars, which were much more massive and so could make much larger black holes.

    Also, that black hole would be very old if it was from a Population III star, which would explain the lack of X rays around it

  8. So normal planets are found by looking for their transit and dip in the stars brightness so if we made a more accurate gravitational wave detector by upgrading ligo or making a new one and looked for their transit and dip in two black holes gravitational wave brightness could we find planets around binary black holes that way?

  9. I mean, I kinda figured planets could form around black holes. A black hole is just a heavier point in space than a sun. So in order for planets to form, the materials would just need to be at the appropriate distance. So this doesn't surprise me. What would surprise me is actually finding planets orbiting a black hole, because I want to know exactly how we accomplished that considering we would be able to see (using light) the black hole, let alone the planets orbiting it.

  10. Apparently you never watched the one episode of Doctor Who, where they were on a planet orbiting a blackhole. I found that episode to be interesting. You're awesome.
    Merry Xmas.

  11. Maybe it's a star orbiting a star with a dyson sphere around it. Then that civilization could populate both sides of the sphere, which is probably the only way to make such a project worthwhile. =)

  12. I'm not sure but for some reason this comes as no surprise to me. Surely any material orbiting around a large source of gravity will eventually form into planets, etc? Why wouldn't black holes be any different? Surely the massive explosion that forms that black hole must kick off sufficent material, and I'm assuming not all of it will escape into the void, leaving plenty of stuff left behind for planetary formation.

  13. Black holes do not have accretion disks. Nothing, not even gas and dust is able to fall into a black hole. I know what I just said is conjecture but I have the evidence showing I'm right. ALMA telescope published a Doppler image back in October of this year. The Doppler image showed the movement of gas and dust around the black hole in the core of our galaxy. Several telescopes are able to detect high energy photons coming from the black hole and they concocted many theories as to what was producing it. So ALMA Telescope measured the movement of all the gas and dust to see what theory was right, including general relativity and what theory was wrong. I've been saying for years that general relativity was wrong, and I even corrected it. My calculations showed that nothing could fall into the gravity of a black hole because of the energy connection the gravity would have to emit (information) to grab hold of all the mass in the galaxy. The black hole should produce an invisible solar wind containing high energy particles or dust. I also theorized that the gas and dust would come off the black hole in 4 different hot streams because of the black hole's magnetic polarity and pair production theory, i.e., virtual particles. Which led me to fixing the information problem that comes with general relativity (nothing can escape their gravity, not even information).

    Here's the ALMA Doppler image showing the movement of the gas and dust along with a big plus sign as the location of the black hole. The red and white colored gas is moving away from us, the blue and light blue colored gas is moving towards us. The variation in the gas's color represents velocity, darker for slower, brighter for faster. The black hole is in between the moving gas. Notice how the gas is moving away from the black hole not towards it or orbiting it? Also note that the hundreds of stars within 1 light year away from the black hole are not in the gas and dust image. This means the gas and dust is extremely close to the black hole. The movement of the gas and dust implies that all the material is coming from the black hole. This Doppler image completely contradicts the general theory of relativity. The gas and dust is not even orbiting the black hole but instead the black hole appears to be producing hot particles that emit high energy photons, but no light! They produce gamma rays and X-rays but no light! There are a total of 4 streams of high energy particles spewing away from the black hole! Nothing is falling into it, not even light! It does not have an event horizon. It does not have an accretion disk. It does not have a photon sphere. Nothing is falling into it. But the black hole does produce flares in visible light every once in a while, like our sun does. These direct observations completely contradict the general theory of relativity. Like I said, general relativity is wrong, here's the evidence.

  14. Imagine an intelligent life thrived in a black hole system. They will be so confused about the movement of stars around them.

  15. …a Lunar Calendar [06:57] will have 29.5 days per row, interleaved, and tilted 1‰ to 29.5306-per…
    …(also, Waxing/Waning Gibbous nearest Full Moon will show extra-shine facing said Full Moon)…
    …((also #2—each phase icon will be more-like the real-amount-of-phase; And show Earthshine))…
    …(((AND—your Legend should explain: Quarter, means of-total, not-Full, relative to New Moon)))…

  16. To my mind, it was always possible to form planets around a black hole. Just a different process in some ways. I've also thought about things like black holes that don't form from a dead star. What if a massive cloud of dust didn't have enough hydrogen to cause ignition and you ended up with first a ridiculously large planet at the center that kept growing until the mass reached collapse level and turned into a black hole? We have already said you can make a black hole even from just light. We keep finding out that more is possible than we thought. So, who knows what we will confirm tomorrow?

  17. My question is, is if scientists can pinpoint the exact range of solar mass of the blackhole to exactly between 55 to 79 Sol M then why can't they just calculate the exact Mass of it? Seems to me that If you have exact numbers for a range then you should have an exact number in general. Hmm…

  18. (3:46) Why wouldn't planets form around a black hole? Our own sun isn't massive enough to form a black hole, but if it was, and the planets were spaced accordingly, when the sun collapses to form a black hole, we wouldn't notice anything gravitationally different unless we got nudged towards the black hole.

  19. How old is this blackhole, it could easily be well within the hundreds of millions to billions of years old who knows how much it has fed since then, Blackholes do grow as they feed you know.

  20. Don't know why scientists would even question if planets can form around supermassive black holes. If there's enough material in a stable orbit, then why not?

  21. If we were on a 100% identical earth that orbited a black hole, would we experience time differently?

    Or would we experience time exactly as we do now, and would only the observers (earth humans) outside of the black hole’s orbit be observing the planet existing in slow-motion/if not at a stand still?

  22. The planet should be named Krop Tor and the blackhole K37 Gem 5, just don't go into the ancient city there or have no Oods or touch the pottery

  23. Just watch out for those waves on a planet orbiting a black hole. They're the size of mountains! And every second you spend there, a day passes in the normal universe!

  24. I'm happy my planet orbits this particular star at this distance tbh, idc if your star is slightly bigger or smaller, I've played universal sandbox, the slightest change kills all life. Lol

  25. It kind of makes sense that a planet could form around a black hole. My understanding on planetary formation is that planets are formed from the disk of material orbiting a star that is forming. And black holes seem to have "accretion disks" not sure why these couldn't have planet like objects forming. I would imagine that it would be quite a bit colder orbiting around a black hole than it would be orbiting around a star, so life wouldn't naturally form but I couldn't even imagine the science that could be learnt by orbiting around a black hole

  26. I wonder if a planet could remain "Dormant" in terms of life, only for the black hole to eventually suck up some gases – light up, and sit like this for a couple million years. During this time life begins to evolve, at a faster rate due to the higher levels of energy. A species that operates solely on the energy given off from that black holes accretion disk as opposed to eating eachother. Eventually competition grows in who can gather the most light – they begin to get mobile, eventually they grow enough intellect to share, they develop ways to provide their own bodily energy via electricity. They develop research establishments and various methods on obtaining energy (like how we eat various tasty foods, they absorb various wavelengths of energy).

    Eventually they create star ships and travel the Universe.

    They reach earth and we eat them like we would salad.

    The end

  27. okay but black-hole-planet aliens.

    Like, I assume the radiation would be inhospitable *somehow*, but I don't know that, I studied mostly pure math at university. What parts of the spectrum would these planets get from the black hole's accretion disk? could recognizable forms of life theoretically happen, or are we just going to end up with sterile spheres of god-knows-what?

  28. I completely misunderstood this as planets forming as a globe surrounding a black hole, with the black hole at its core
    Now THAT would be wild

  29. "Planets ""Could"" Form Around Black Holes" Gee, it's not like first 4 alien planets ever found were around black hole. OH WAIT! THEY WERE! What a stupid clickbait…

  30. "I'm glad our planet is orbiting not a black hole"
    for now

  31. Weird question.. but could a star orbit a planet? What if a much, much bigger planet formed around a black hole and caught the star? Idk just a thought

  32. Your lunar calendar appears to need room to write stuff. I use calendars to track my plans, any other info is just extras.

  33. How could a black hole orbit a star or have a star obit it? Shouldn't companions break free of there partners when one goes supernova and loses a large portion of its mass?

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