UML Class Diagram Tutorial

UML Class Diagram Tutorial


Hi my name is Zach, and I’m with Lucidchart. Today I’ll be teaching you about UML Class Diagrams. We’ll start with some of the basic characteristics. Then we’ll talk about relationships. And we’ll finish up by going through some
examples together. Alright, let’s talk about some of the basic
characteristics of class diagrams. To help explain these characteristics, I’m
going to make up an example to help illustrate. So let’s say we’re building a system for
a zoo. And, by the way, these examples I’m going
to use probably wouldn’t ever find their way into an actual program, but it’ll make
all these concepts easier to understand. So in our zoo, we’d want to describe the
different things that are in the system. You represent those things through classes,
and a class is depicted with this shape here. So what’s in a zoo? Well there are a ton of animals. So we could create a class for our animals. To do that, you just write the name of the
class in this top section. If our class is Animal, an instance of that
class would be a specific animal. So the question is, how would you go about
identifying each instance of that class? You do that through attributes. An attribute is a significant piece of data
containing values that describe each instance of that class. They’re also known as fields, variables,
or properties, and they go in the middle section here. So for our animal class, we could create attributes
like name, ID, and age. That way we could identify a specific instance
of the animal class. Like Ruth, ID number 304, age 114. These need to be formatted a certain way though. You start with visibility, which we’ll talk
about later. The name of the attribute beginning with a lowercase letter. Then you follow it with a colon and the data
type. For the name, we’d want to return a string. And we can format the other attributes the
same way, except that we’d want to return an integer since these are numbers. Now that we’ve got some attributes for our
Animal class, we get to the bottom section here. This is where you put methods, which are also
known as operations or functions. Methods allow you to specify any behavioral
features of a class. So we might ask ourselves, what are some different
behaviors of this Animal class? Maybe we’d want to be able to change our
animals’ names. Like Ruth should actually be called Rita. So let’s create a function called Set Name. We could also create a method for eating,
since all of our animals eat. Methods also need to be formatted a certain way. You start with visibility (which we’ll talk
about next), then the method beginning with a lowercase letter. Next you put parentheses to signify the function
you’re going to program later. You can also add variables and the data type
in here, but in most cases, it’s not really necessary. We’ll add visibility and parentheses to
the eat method as well. Now let’s talk about the visibility. The visibility of an attribute or a method
sets the accessibility for that attribute or method. So right now we have a minus sign for all
of these, which indicates that each of these attributes and methods are private. They can’t be accessed by any other class
or subclass. The exact opposite is the plus sign, which
means an attribute or method is public and can be accessed by any other class. Another visibility type is indicated by the
hash, which means an attribute or method is protected. These can only be accessed by the same class
or its subclasses. And finally, there’s the tilde (or the squiggly
as I like to call it). This sets the visibility to package or default,
which means it can be used by any other class as long as it’s in the same package. But that one is rarely ever used. In most cases, your attributes are going to
be Private or Protected, and methods are often Public. Let’s quickly review these basics with another
example. Let’s make a class for Employee. We could give an Employee attributes like name, employeeID, phone number, and department. We’ll want all these attributes to be private. And then we could create a simple method,
like updating the phone number. Which we’ll go ahead and set to public. So you may have noticed that I’m using diagramming
software to create these UML Class Diagrams. The same principles apply if you’re using
pen and paper. But a diagramming software makes it much easier. The diagramming software I’m using today is
Lucidchart. And you can sign up for free by clicking on
the link at the top right. All it takes is an email address and then
you’ll be able to follow along as we make these class diagrams. So the next thing we’ll need to cover are
the different relationships that exist between classes. The first type of relationship that we’ll
describe is inheritance. And I’m gonna keep going with the zoo example
because it makes it easy to understand the logic of these relationships. We’ll get to a more technical, real-world
example later. Okay, so inheritance. Let’s say in our zoo, the only animals we
have are tortoises, otters, and the lesser known but nonetheless amazing slow loris. In our system, we want to distinguish each
of them as their own class. So we make three new classes for Tortoise,
Otter, and Slow Loris. And I’ll make these a little smaller so
you can see them better. Now instead of duplicating attributes for
name, ID, and age, we can make these classes into subclasses of the animal class by drawing
open arrows like this. This is an inheritance relationship. We’re saying that these subclasses inherit
all the attributes and methods of the superclass. You could also use the terms child and parent
class. So our Otter class is going to inherit the
attributes of name, age, and ID. And then we could add an attribute specific
to Otter, like whisker length. One of the advantages of inheritance is that
if we wanted to change or add an attribute for all animals, we wouldn’t have to go
in and make that change to Tortoise, and then Otter, and then Slow Loris. We just make the change to the Animal class
and it applies across all subclasses. In this scenario, we also have what’s called
abstraction. Animal is an abstract class. Because in our system, anytime we want to
instantiate one of our classes, it’s going to be a tortoise, otter, or slow loris. We wouldn’t instantiate the animal class
itself. The animal class is just a way to simplify
things and keep the code “dry” so you don’t repeat yourself. So to show that this is an abstract class,
we’ll put the name in italics. You could put the class name inside these
things as well, but I prefer italics. Okay another type of relationship is association. So if we had a class for Sea Urchin we could
draw an association, which is just depicted by a simple line, between Otter and Sea Urchin. And we could say Otter eats Sea Urchin. There’s no dependency between them. It’s just a basic association relationship
and it’s pretty simple. The next type of relationship is aggregation. It’s a special type of association that
specifies a whole and its parts. So to continue with our zoo example…again,
this is just to help explain the logic…let’s create a new class for a group of tortoises. A group of tortoises is called a creep, and
that’s pretty cool. So here’s our Creep class and it’s got
a relationship with tortoise. Any of our zoo’s tortoises could be part
of a creep. But they don’t have to be. A tortoise could leave the creep at any point
and still exist on its own. That type of relationship, where a part can
exist outside the whole, is aggregation and we note it with an open diamond. There’s also a relationship where the part
can’t exist outside the whole. It’s called composition. To illustrate this, I’m going to create
a few new classes. Let’s just say we have several different
visitor centers in our zoo. And each of those visitor centers has a lobby
and a bathroom. Now if one of our visitors centers was torn
down, the lobby and the bathroom of that visitor center would be destroyed as well. Those rooms couldn’t exist apart from the
Visitor Center that they’re in. That’s composition…when a child object
wouldn’t be able to exist without its parent object. We note a composition relationship with a
closed diamond. Another important concept when talking about
relationships in UML class diagrams is multiplicity. Multiplicity allows you to set numerical constraints
on your relationships. For example, let’s say we want to specify
that our visitor centers are going to have just one lobby. We simply write the number one here, meaning
there can be one and only one lobby per visitor center. But for bathrooms, maybe we want to make it
so that there’s at least one bathroom per visitor center, but leave the option to have
as many as you’d like. We’d use this notation to denote one or
many bathrooms. Other types of multiplicity are zero to one,
which is an optional relationship. N, representing a specific amount, which in
our example was one, but it could be any other number depending on your use case. Zero to many. One to many. Or a specific number range. Hopefully our zoo examples have helped explain
those concepts, but I want to show you what a real world example would look like. This is a UML class diagram for an online
shopping cart, and if you want to look at this diagram with me, just click the link
in the top right corner. You can see that this system has several classes
and relationships, so let’s walk through a couple of them. We’ll start with the user class. It’s got attributes for user ID, password,
login status, and register date. You’ve got the different return types on
the right, and on the left, the visibility, which are set to private. You can see how the values returned by these
attributes would specifically describe an instance of the User class. Down below we have a public method of verify
login, returning a boolean. And this makes sense, right? Methods are behaviors of a class. So if you were to log in to your user account,
there’s a function in place that verifies your login credentials. Let’s move on to the Customer class. This arrow tells us that Customer is a child
of User. So Customer inherits all the attributes and
methods of the User class. And same thing for the Administrator class. Both of these inherit from User, but also
have their own specific attributes and methods. Like Administrator can update catalog, but
Customer can’t. Stemming from Customer, there are several
lines with the closed-in diamond. So if you recall, these are composition relationships
which means that the parts cannot exist without the whole. If an instance of the Customer class, if that
customer’s account was destroyed, his shopping cart would be destroyed and his orders would
be lost. They can’t exist outside of the customer. The same applies for Shipping Info and Order
Details. If there’s no order, there’s not going
to be any order details or shipping info. The last thing we’ll look at in this example
is multiplicity. You can see that a customer can have zero
or many orders. Makes sense, right? You could create a customer account for an
online store but never buy anything. Or you could be a frequent customer and place
several different orders. And then on the flip side, an order can belong
to only one customer. It’d be pretty confusing if a specific order
with a unique order ID was duplicated across several different customers. And here you can see a one-to-one relationship. Each Order has one and only one Order Details. And Order Details belongs to one and only
one Order. Thanks for watching this tutorial on UML Class
Diagrams. Be sure to subscribe to the channel and leave
a comment below. Lastly, don’t forget to sign up for a free
Lucidchart account by using this link. And you’ll be able to start making your own
UML Class Diagrams in no time.

Brightspace Portfolio – Bring Your Own Device – Learner

Brightspace Portfolio – Bring Your Own Device – Learner


Collect evidence of your learning to share
with others by adding the Brightspace Portfolio app to your personal device. This tutorial
shows how to connect the Brightspace Portfolio app on your personal device to your Brightspace
account and then collect and share evidence. This process has three steps. Downloading
the Brightspace Portfolio app from your devices’ app store, copying, or printing, the log in
details, and making the connection on your device.
To find the log in details, from My Portfolio, click Log into the App.
A pop-up displays with log in details. You can copy or type your institution’s web address,
or print and scan the QR code attached to your institution.
Next, from your device, open the Brightspace Portfolio app and select my device.
Enter the web address of your institution, or scan the QR code found in the Log into
Brightspace Portfolio App window. Then, enter the same credentials you use to
log into your courses. and select Log In.
Brightspace Portfolio is ready for evidence collection. You can take a new photo, record
a video, or upload a file already on your device.
Once you have captured the evidence, select Collected Evidence to edit or upload it.
Select the evidence you want to review. Here, you can add a title, an audio reflection
or type some thoughts before uploading the evidence. Select Add a title…
Enter a title, and select Done. When you are ready, select Upload.
Then, select which course the evidence will be associated with. Collect evidence of your learning to share with others by adding the Brightspace Portfolio add to your personal device.

UNMC E-Learning Showcase 2015

UNMC E-Learning Showcase 2015



this is to help students prepare for lab practicals this one is on the shoulder it will also bring you back to tell you why it was incorrect reels it in has an emotional aspect at the end yes there was more you could have done right yeah that's good we have 21 faculty and student learning modules being demonstrated and presented for our campus today and we're going to choose the movement which would be cervical flexion I am seeing examples of innovative creative exciting projects a real mix of innovators of fusion between technology teaching and learning and the students and I work to put together an engaging interactive product and you can check measurements after you've entered them all to make sure one of the goals was to make part of it be a video so that the students could model that behavior goes through the entire process of introducing yourself to the patient getting them set up on the table correctly helps build your confidence when able to like see it multiple times over before you do like a lab practical and what you're expected to test out on those procedures the students are helping fill gaps for us and what they think are the learning needs from the student perspective our modules they have a video and then they have quizzes at the end our certain generation of students the Millennials they really want to have flexibility in their learning I can't see it anywhere and anytime they can watch it over and over and I do notice them returning to some of the more complex topics then going through questions where you can kind of challenge yourself elearning allows them to take their own path at their own pace their own fine 24-7 access alerting he is the present in the future of healthcare education allows for seamless learning opportunities bringing together the very best of the technology and applying it to the knowledge and skills that healthcare professionals on the future really need it's not replacing any of the face-to-face high-touch activities that we already do but allows students to have an engaging interactive supplemental material that can improve their success I've always wanted to teach and this is kind of the cutting-edge thing and teaching and so I definitely wanted to be enjoyed I didn't know I could do something like this but you know with the help of Betsy and all the resources here at unmc they really make it easy the University of Nebraska Medical Center has always been forward-thinking with regard to online electronic education the national leader it's exciting to be on a campus that supports that initiative I can only say wow this has been an exceptional demonstration of what our students and faculties can do

Grading and Assessments in E-Learning

Grading and Assessments in E-Learning



hi this is jason johnston instructional designer at the college of social work university of kentucky and today we're going to talk about e-learning grading and assessment why and how do we assess and give feedback to our students so let's begin we grade students for multiple reasons first because we must someone is usually telling us teachers that we need to hand in grades and that's the way it's always been done although that is changing in some sectors higher powers need a way to evaluate learning with data and this is the assessment above learning although sometimes it could be called assessment regarding learning or belt learning even against learning despite learning or opposite learning but there is some good reason for this for accreditation graduation requirements certifications and funding sometimes there needs to be an assessment above learning next reason we assess students is to give them feedback we want to instruct students on how they can improve and you know this works when we instruct students give them good solid feedback it actually increases their understanding this is the assessment for learning now this kind of feedback should be dynamic it should not just be teacher to student but from student to teacher as well this is called formative assessment and it's a tool used by teacher to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics papam states that research shows conclusively that formative assessment does improve learning some examples of this are mid class or mid unit survey daily exit tickets and this is when a student either electronically or analog they fill out some sort of form to give the teacher some sort of feedback on what they learned or didn't learn that day or low stakes tests and quizzes that are graded but not necessarily entered into the final grades we also grade students for measurement that is to assess what has taken place did it work did the students learn and we call this assessment of learning we want to evaluate what they have learned or having and this should be an assessment of the students learning as well as our teaching some examples of this our midterm or final tests final projects or other non tests like interviews observations portfolios etc harlan and james stated that summative assessment is concerned with progress towards the big ideas rather than the learning in specific activities so we have formative assessment that happens along the way we have summative assessment that happens at the end and using a combination of both formative and summative assessment can create a synergistic effect on academic success and this is what we want in the end our assessments aren't just to see what the students have learned but they're there to actually increase learning and this is the ideal for anything we implement into our classes that they are to increase the learning of the students here are some of my resources if you'd like to take a look at any of those thanks for listening and if you want to learn anything more about specifically grading and rubrics in canvas you can click that link below if you have any other questions please comment below or contact me here

Discussions in E-Learning - Best Practices and Principles

Discussions in E-Learning – Best Practices and Principles



today we're going to talk about discussions and elearning principles and best practice learning objectives today to understand best practices for facilitating online learning through discussions and most of what I'll be thinking about as we're doing this we're talking about it asynchronous and synchronous discussions that can happen online and e-learning and mostly what I'll be thinking about or the asynchronous ones the ones that happen develop over time and the discussion boards and and so on this is partly because online learning is intended to overcome the challenges of both space and time and if you're holding synchronous discussions for your students each week at a specific time it does reduce the accessibility and flexibility to the course although synchronous discussions are also a good thing to have as part of your course today we'll be looking at discussions with a mind towards the asynchronous discussions will understand discussions and learning and look at some principles and practices so let's begin discussions really our best practice student-centered learning model with long-standing pedagogical support long-standing meaning it goes back quite a ways to the Socratic method phrase I like his cooperative argumentative dialogue happens between individuals based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and dry out ideas and underlying presumptions this was developed by John Dewey rooted in his practical inquiry urging students to exercise reflective practice which is really a cooperative argument dialogue between individuals based on asking and answering questions in stimulate problem-solving and deeper thinking Laprade writes according to ferrell as early as 1933 john dewey encourage teachers to make informed decisions based on systematic and conscious reflections rather than fleeting thoughts about teaching and he maintained that when teachers combined these systematic reflections with their actual teaching experiences then they can become more aware which can lead to professional development this community of inquiry was further developed by garrison Anderson and Archer looking at the different presences that happen within a course the social presence the cognitive presence and the teaching presence and through the interaction of these three core elements then learning occurs cognitive presence indicators include a sense of puzzlement information exchange connecting ideas and applying new ideas the indicators for social presence things like emoticons risk free expression encouraging collaboration and for the teaching presence indicators include defining and initiating discussion topics sharing personal meaning and focusing discussion with the end goal of creating an engaged online learner Craney Wallis Alexander and Alfano say as a result of this increased interaction students understand the concepts to a greater depth develop a firmer foundation in core competencies as well as earn a higher grade in the course now we'll take a look at some principles and practices from Michele Miller's Minds online teaching effectively with technology this is an excellent book that encourage all of you to read that at the end lays out quite a number of principles and practices and today I'm just focusing on the ones that specifically have to do with online discussions first principle we're going to focus on is focusing on meaning rather than superficial qualities promotes memory as well as understanding this particularly is true when people relate the information to themselves in the practice discussion assignments that require leading and or summarizing discussion threads minds online goes out to talk about two different roles that start a role that would give a student the responsibility of starting the conversations creating good questions that would help the other students think critically and respond intelligently and then assign another student a wrapper role that would give them the responsibility of wrapping up the conversation I had a certain point this student would create a summary of the discussions and try to highlight the main points of the student discussion another practice is online discussions built around experiences from students own lives and this again is back to that idea of the students will best relate to the information if they could relate it back to themselves the next principle is memory for new information is powerfully shaped by what we already know that as we fit things into our existing framework one practice is discussion prompts asking students to relate new information to old information next principals discussions can be surprisingly powerful learning experiences when designed and managed the right way and the practice discussions that start and end at set times short tightly focused discussions that unfold over two weeks or less maybe an icebreaker or getting to know you discussion threads not every discussion thread has to be graded or or directly related to the information and it is important to give explicit civility guidelines as you guide and as you develop your online discussions another practice is frequent lurking and as needed an intervention by the instructor to keep threads on track and civil now this could be like the picture example to take care of any major problems with with language or with with attitudes within the discussion thread but it also could be simply to correct some errors an example might be however only to chime in when you've given significant time for the other students to be able to also chime in and correct another practice grading rubrics for a discussion posts and this is just an example of a quick small rubric that could be used for a discussion post giving points for the original thought cited source and responding to other students and the practice of having discussions tied to structured activities such as problem-based learning or case studies the next last and probably most important principle is encouraging higher-order thinking now this idea comes from Bloom's taxonomy which was revised by crawled in 2002 this starts with remember on the bottom recalling facts and figures then understanding what those facts mean applying the facts rules or concepts and ideas analyzing is to break down the information into parts to evaluate means to judge that information or ideas and then create would combine the parts to make a new whole solve problems with new solutions and the idea is to get students thinking deeper and more critically and to move them up the scale of taxonomy into into deeper thinking critical thinking abilities are enhanced by encouraging students to comment on their peers online discussion postings they learn to challenge their assumptions and to provide a rationale for their responses so the practice here problem-based discussions creating discussions that again would set out some sort of problem that the students would have to discuss and talk about how they would solve and encouraging that higher-order thinking to to apply to that problem solving another practices guidelines that emphasize critical thinking and presentation of evidence now one simple idea is simply including this into your rubric so whatever you want the students to achieve that you would lay out in your rubric so that they could be clearly guided towards not just responding to to students but responding to to other students deepening the discussion you know online discussions work in-depth online discussions help students gain a new understanding of course related subjects emphasizing an increased motivation due to real-time interaction and feedback as well as increased interpersonal connections so now to practice the practice right now why don't you stop this clip and write down somehow create an example discussion post applying these principles and practices down below I will provide a link and that will allow you to download the PowerPoint if you wish to do that flip through the notes and just right now while you're thinking about create an example discussion post applying these principles and practices I hope this was helpful thank you for watching continue to learn and continue to help your students to learn by increasing the depth of your discussion posts and using some of these principles and practices as you teach

e-Learning e Gestão do Conhecimento

e-Learning e Gestão do Conhecimento



elaine é uma das modalidades de educação a distância que utiliza a mídia eletrônica como base principalmente a internet e educação à distância ou ead já vem desde os cursos por correspondência e agora com a internet em que caracterizou elaine tem todas as características as funcionalidades do mundo virtual de comunicação que torna o ambiente mais atrativo falando em comunicação delany tem duas formas são bastante utilizadas dentro desse meio uma é a comunicação síncrona ea outra assíncrona síncrona sincronismo é quando o professor e aluno estão em contato ao mesmo tempo em aula ao mesmo tempo e assíncrona quando o professor e aluno não estão em aula mesmo momento um exemplo de comunicação do tipo 5 né shetty também videoconferência assíncrona fórum e meio então tem toda a interação mas também não exatamente no mesmo momento as vantagens desse dessa modalidade de ensino são várias dentre elas o custo uma vez investido num curso no treinamento o mesmo pode ser utilizado várias vezes pensando em uma trilha de conhecimento então você pode aproveitar isso de dn maneiras tem quem vai participar de lane pode planejar melhor o seu tempo então tem toda essa flexibilidade fácil acesso tendo acesso à internet está tudo concentrado ali naquele ambiente a distribuição de conteúdo às vezes pensando hoje nas empresas na correria do dia a dia o ambiente que muda muito em inovação então às vezes você não consegue atender à demanda porque é difícil questão de reunir o pessoal também à distância e aí você tem tudo concentrado naquele ambiente pode também é oferecer mais cursos e manter esse pessoal atualizado as interações entre professor e aluno corre pelo ambiente virtual onde tem todo o conteúdo interessante pra aquela situação talvez seja um curso ou vários cursos e o até então as ferramentas de comunicação biblioteca conteúdos complementares tudo que é interessante para aquela situação visto no ambiente virtual agora é interessante também é ter o outro lado para quem vai acompanhar o desenvolvimento desses treinamentos o curso então ter um sistema de gestão de treinamentos o lms e aí sim ele registra tudo que está acontecendo neste ambiente desde quanto tempo o estudante ficou naquele ambiente recursos foram feitos pode ter uma trilha ser acompanhado essas trilhas emissão de certificado e o lms e sistema de gestão de treinamentos ele é associado a um padrão scorm que são especificações onde se tem esses padrões e você pode aproveitar treinamentos uma vez investido no um treinamento ou um curso para uma situação você pode reaproveitar em outra plataforma então tem essa mesma comunicação é e a relação entre lane a gestão do vencimento está justamente em uma das dimensões de gestão do conhecimento que são as pessoas as pessoas assumiram um papel fundamental que está no comprometimento com os resultados e lane como uma das ferramentas de gestão do conhecimento traz esse ambiente propício para que elas se mantenham atualizadas com relação a novos produtos novos processos de uma forma mais rápida de uma forma dinâmica com ferramentas de comunicação diferenciada utilizando todos os recursos da internet o que facilita muito pouco esse processo é