Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24

Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24


Hi, I’m John Green, this is
Crash Course U.S. History and today we leave behind the world of industry
and corporations to talk about the Wild Wild West. Spoiler Alert: You You have died of dysentery. And in the process, we’re going to explore how all of us, even those of us who are vegan or eat sustainably-produced food benefit from massive agrobusiness that has its roots in the Wild Wild West. The West still looms large in American mythology as the home of cowboys and gunslingers and houses of ill repute and freedom from pesky government interference. But in fact: It was probably not as wild as we’ve been told. Ugh, Mr. Green, why can’t America
live up to its myths just once? Because this is America, Me from the Past,
home to Hollywood and Gatsby and Honey Boo Boo. We are literally in the mythmaking business. [Theme Music] So, before the Hollywood western, the myth of
the Frontier probably found its best expression
in Frederick Jackson Turner’s 1893 lecture, “the Significance of the Frontier in American
History.” Turner argued that the West was responsible
for key characteristics of American culture: beliefs in individualism, political
democracy, and economic mobility. Like, for 18th and 19th century Americans, the western frontier represented the opportunity to start over, and possibly to strike it rich by dint of
one’s own individual effort, even back when
the West was, like, Ohio. In this mythology, the west was a magnet for restless young men who lit out for the uncorrupted, unoccupied, untamed territories to seek their fortune. But, in reality, most western settlers
went not as individuals but as members of
a family or as part of an immigrant group. And they weren’t filling up unoccupied
space either because most of that territory
was home to American Indians. Also, in addition to Easterners and migrants from
Europe, the West was settled by Chinese people and
by Mexican migrant laborers and former slaves. Plus, there were plenty of Mexicans living
there already who became Americans with
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. And the whole west as “a place of rugged
individualism and independence” turns out
to be an oversimplification. I mean, the federal government, after all, had to
pass the law that spurred homesteading, then had
to clear out American Indians already living there, and had to sponsor the railroads that allowed
the West to grow in the first place. About as individualistic as the government
buying Walden Pond for Henry David Thoreau. What’s that? It’s a state park now? The
government owns it? Well, there you go. Now, railroads didn’t create the desire to settle
the west but they did make it possible for people who
wanted to live out west to do so, for two reasons. First, without railroads there would be no
way to bring crops or other goods to market. I mean, I guess you could dig a canal
across Kansas, but, if you’ve ever been to
Kansas that is not a tantalizing proposition. Second, railroads made life in the west
profitable and livable because they brought
the goods that people needed, such as tools for planting and sowing,
shoes for wearing, books for putting on
your shelf and pretending to have read. Railroads allowed settlers to stay connected
with the modernity that was becoming the hallmark
of the industrialized world in the 19th century. Now, we saw last week that the Federal government
played a key role in financing the transcontinental
railroad, but state governments got into the act too,
often to their financial detriment. In fact, so many states nearly went bankrupt
financing railroads that most states now have
constitutional requirements that they balance
their budgets. But perhaps the central way that the Federal
government supported the railroads, and western
settlement and investment in general, was by leading military expeditions against
American Indians, rounding them up on ever-smaller
reservations, and destroying their culture. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. There was an economic as well as a racial
imperative to move the Native Americans off
their land: white people wanted it. Initially it was needed to set down railroad
tracks, and then for farming. But eventually it was also exploited for minerals like gold and iron and other stuff that makes industry work. I mean, would you really want a territory called
the Badlands unless it had valuable minerals? Early western settlement, of the Oregon Trail kind,
did not result in huge conflicts with Native Americans, but by the 1850s, a steady stream of settlers
kicked off increasingly bloody conflicts that
lasted pretty much until 1890. Even though the fighting started before the
Civil War, the end of the “war between the states” meant a new, more violent phase in the warring
between American Indians and whites. General Philip H. “Little Phil” Sheridan
set out to destroy the Indians’ way of life, burning villages and killing their horses
and especially the buffalo that was the basis
of the plains tribes’ existence. There were about 30 million buffalo in the
U.S. in 1800; by 1886 the Smithsonian Institute
had difficulty finding 25 “good specimens.” In addition to violent resistance, some Indians
turned to a spiritual movement to try to preserve
their traditional way of life. Around 1890 the Ghost Dance movement
arose in and around South Dakota. Ghost Dancers believed that if they gathered
together to dance and engage in religious rituals, eventually the white man would disappear
and the buffalo would return, and with them
the Indians’ traditional customs. But even though a combined force of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors completely destroyed George Custer’s force of 250 cavalrymen at Little Bighorn in 1876, and Geronimo took years to subdue in the Southwest, western Native Americans were all defeated by 1890,
and the majority were moved to reservations. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Boy, this Wild West
episode sure is turning out to be loads of fun! It’s just like the Will Smith movie! All right, Stan, this is about to get even more depressing, so let’s look at, like, some pretty mountains and western landscapes and stuff, while I deliver this next bit. So in 1871 the U.S. government ended the treaty
system that had since the American Revolution treated
Native American land as if they were nations. And then with the Dawes Act of 1887, the
lands set aside for the Indians were allotted
to individual families rather than to tribes. Indians who “adopted the habits of civilized life,” which in this case meant becoming small
scale individualistic Jeffersonian farmers, would be granted citizenship and there were
supposed to be some protections to prevent their
land from falling out of Native American possession. But, these protections were not particularly
protective and much of the Indian land was purchased
either by white settlers or by speculators. After the passage of the Dawes Act
“Indians lost 86 million of the 138 million
acres of land in their possession.” Oh boy, it’s time for the Mystery Document.
The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document.
And then you get to see me get shocked when
I’m wrong. All right. I have seen the Great Father Chief the Next
Great Chief the Commissioner Chief; the Law Chief; and many other law chiefs and they all say
they are my friends, and that I shall have justice, but while all their mouths talk right I do not
understand why nothing is done for my people. I have heard talk and talk but nothing is done
Words do not pay for my dead people. They do not pay for my country now
overrun by white men. They do not protect my father’s grave. Good words will not give my people a home where
they can live in peace and take care of themselves. I am tired of talk that comes to nothing. It makes my heart sick when I remember all
the good words and all the broken promises. I mean that could be almost any American Indian
leader. This is totally unfair, Stan. All I really know about
this is that the Great Father Chief is the President. I mean it could be any of a dozen people. How bout if I say the name in 10 seconds I
don’t get punished? Aaaand start. Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Geronimo,
Chief Big Foot, um, Keokuk, Chief Oshkosh, Chief Joseph Ch-OH YES YES! And now let us move from tragedy to tragedy. So if you’re thinking that it couldn’t
get worse for the Native Americans: it did. After killing off the buffalo, taking their
land and forcing Indians onto reservations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs instituted a
policy that amounted to cultural genocide. It set up boarding schools, the most famous of
which was in Carlisle, PA, where Indian children were
forcefully removed from their families to be civilized. This meant teaching them English, taking away their
clothes, their names, and their family connections. The idea put succinctly, was to “kill the
Indian, save the man.” Now, the U.S. wasn’t the only nation busy subjugating its indigenous inhabitants and putting them on reservations in the late 19th century. Like, something similar was happening in South Africa, in Chile, and even to First Peoples in Canada. And you’re usually so good, Canada. Although the slower pace of western settlement meant that there was much less bloodshed, so, another point to Canada. And as bad as the American boarding
school policy was, at least it was short lived compared with Australia’s policy of removing Aboriginal children from families and placing them with white foster families, which lasted until the 1970s. All right, Stan, we need to cheer this episode
up. Let’s talk about cowboys! The Marlboro Man riding the range, herding cows and smoking, solitary in the saddle, alone in his emphysema. Surely that is the actual West, the men and women but mostly men who stood apart from the industrializing country as the last of Jefferson’s rugged individuals. But, no. Once again, we have the railroad
to thank for our image of the cowboy. Like, those massive cattle drives of
millions of cows across open range Texas? Yeah, they ended at towns like Abilene, and Wichita, and Dodge City – because that’s where the railheads were. Without railroads, cowboys would have just
driven their cattle in endless circles. And without industrial meat processing, there
wouldn’t have been a market for all that beef. And it was a lot of beef. You know what I’m
talking about. I’m actually talking about beef. By the mid 1880s the days of open range
ranching were coming to an end, as ranchers began to enclose more and
more land and set up their businesses closer to,
you guessed it, railroad stations. There are also quite a few things about western
farming that just fly in the face of the mythical
Jeffersonian yeoman farmer ideal. Firstly, this type of agricultural
work was a family affair; many women bore huge burdens on
western farms, as can be seen in this excerpt
from a farm woman in Arizona: “Get up, turn out my chickens, draw a pail of water … make a fire, put potatoes to cook, brush
and sweep half inch of dust off floor, feed three litters of chickens, then mix biscuits,
get breakfast, milk, besides work in the house and
this morning had to go half mile after calves.” These family-run farms were increasingly oriented towards production of wheat and corn for national and even international markets rather than trying to eke out subsistence. Farmers in Kansas found themselves competing
with farmers in Australia and Argentina, and this international competition pushed
prices lower and lower. Secondly, the Great Plains, while remarkably
productive agriculturally, wouldn’t be nearly as good for
producing crops without massive irrigation projects. Much of the water needed for plains agriculture
comes a massive underground lake, the Oglala Aquifer. Don’t worry, by the way, the Aquifer is fed by a magic and permanent H20 factory in the core of the earth that you can learn about in Hank’s show, Crash Course Chemis– What’s that? It’s going dry. MY GOD
THIS IS A DEPRESSING EPISODE. Anyway, large-scale irrigation projects
necessitate big capital investments, and therefore large, consolidated agricultural
enterprises that start to look more like agri-business
than family farms. I mean, by 1900, California was home to
giant commercial farms reliant on irrigation
and chemical fertilizers. Some of them were owned, not by families, but by
big corporations like the Southern Pacific Railroad. And they were worked by migrant farm laborers
from China, the Philippines, Japan, Mexico. As Henry George, a critic of late 19th
century corporate capitalism, wrote “California is not a country of farms, but …
of plantations and estates.” When studying American history, it’s really
easy to get caught up in the excitement of
industrial capitalism with its robber barons, and new technologies, and fancy cities
because that world looks very familiar to us,
probably because it’s the one in which we live. After all, if I was running a farm like that Arizona woman I talked about earlier, there’s no way I could be making these videos because I’d be chasing my calves. I don’t even know what a litter of chickens is. Is it 4 chickens? 12? 6? It’s probably 12
because eggs do come in dozens. The massive agricultural surplus
contemporary farms create, and the efficient transportation network that gets
that surplus to me quickly, makes everything else
possible – from YouTube to Chevy Volts. And no matter who you are, you benefit from the products that result from that massive surplus. That’s why we’re watching YouTube right now. So, agriculture and animal husbandry did
change a lot in late 19th century America, as we came to embrace the market driven ethos that we either celebrate or decry these days. And in the end, the Wild West ends up
looking a lot more like industrial capitalism
than like a Larry McMurtry novel. The Wild West, like the rest of the industrialized world, was incentivized to increase productivity and was shaped by an increasingly international economic system. And it’s worth remembering that even
though we think of the Oregon Trail and the
Wild West being part of the same thing. In fact, they were separated by the most important
event in American history: the Civil War. I know that ain’t the mythologizing you’ll
find in Tombstone, but it is true. Thanks for watching.
I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer of the show
is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Halse Rojas, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption for the libertage. If you’d like to suggest one you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course. If you
enjoy it, make sure you subscribe. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. OH, ahh I didn’t get a good push.

Business Blueprint Testimonials

Business Blueprint Testimonials


I’ve been in business for 26 years and there’s never been anything like this. This is the start to get my thing growling. Through Blueprint I’m gaining so much expertise and advice and direction. That for me myself there’s no way that I can live come close to find fraction off. It’s the exact recipe what I actually need It gives you the structure, it gives you guidance, it gives you the knowledge.. And it gives you the opportunity to actually talk about your business with other like people people in the same boat. Lovely young family, so it allows you to sure have young family and grow my business as well. The quality of the speakers is phenomenal. The experts are fantastic, they give you time. They give you everything they know, they don’t hold back. The quality of the experts are sensational. Through the program I found that I even get the right context. In the last 90 days I’ve probably achieve more than I’ve done in the last 12 monts. It was the propaganza, it’s a perfect solution to the problem I had. And I know in the next 90 days with the process that I’m going to set into place that I can at least top up my business. You’ll get a fantastic momentum from this business blueprint. It’s very systemized, it’s very easy to follow, and it’s very easy to be skeptically scalable. It exceeded my expectation to the point.. where I would highly continue to highly recommend this program.

► HTML5 & CSS3 Tutorial — 001 — Welcome Video! (w/ GeekDisorder)

► HTML5 & CSS3 Tutorial — 001 — Welcome Video! (w/ GeekDisorder)


Hello, welcome to Geek Disorder’s
HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript/jQuery Series. This is Lavick, I’ll be walking you through the series. This is our welcome video. It’s going to cover
Who this series is for and What will it Cover? Alright. Who is this series for? This series is for people that may have never seen
HTML, CSS, or JavaScript / jQuery before. We will start with the very basics and work
our way up to some of the more advanced topics. This series is also for people that may have worked with xHTML, HTML, and CSS like the earlier versions like HTML4 . But may not know what’s new in HTML5 and CSS3. If you want to learn the basics of
JavaScript and jQuery this series is for you. We won’t be going into the more advanced
topics of Javascript and jQuery But Geek Disorder will be putting out a full series, on JavaScript and then a series on the Javascript libary jQuery in the future. What will this series cover? We’re going to cover HTML5, CSS3,
the basics of JavaScript and jQuery. And a quick overview of the series is. Well, we’re going to start with introduction to web development. That’s going to cover a basic overview of web development. The web development tools you can use. What you will need to actually complete this series. And special web development issues. We’re going to move on the introduction to HTML5,
like the structure of a web page, formating with CSS The CSS block model, laying out your web page with CSS. Some more intermediate topics of HTML5: Links, lists, images, tables, forms, audio, video
and formatting your page for printing. Then we’ll hit some of the more advanced
topics of HTML5 like JavaScript. We’ll introduce you to the JavaScript library jQuery. Also, we’ll introduce you to jQuery mobile. Make some good web pages for tablets, your phones, such as that. We’ll move on to some more advanced topics
in HTML5 and CSS3, like canvas. We’re going to touch on designing a web page. And then deploy your web site from your computer
onto the web site so everyone can see it. How in depth will this series be? Well, the HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript / jQuery series
will be around 75 to 100 videos. each being 7 to 15 minutes in length on average. We’ll do our best to cover as much HTML5 and CSS3 as we can. If we miss something, just let us know. We will be more than happy to work on putting
out a video to cover it. Add it to the series. We will cover the basics of some of the more
advanced topics in HTML5/ CSS3 like I said canvas. We will definitely do another series that goes a lot
more in-depth on canvas and such in the future. We will cover the basics of JavaScript and jQuery. And putting out a full series that cover the more advanced
topics in Javascript jQuery in the future also. Well, this is Lavick with Geek Disorder. I’ll hope you all will enjoy this series. So, please. We’ll be putting out videos pretty regularly. So, please join us for our HTML5, CSS3,
and JavaScript/ jQuery series! Y’all have a good day.

Why to use CSS selectors instead of adding styles inline

Why to use CSS selectors instead of adding styles inline


At this point I’m pretty happy with what we’ve
come up with. This is very close to the design. So now it’s time to capture all of the style
changes that we’ve made into our file. So far we’ve made these changes in the browser
but as soon as we refresh these changes will be gone. I’m going to jump back to our text editor.
Now earlier on in this series what we did to add styles was use the style property.
So we’d do style, equals and then quotes and we’d put our styles right in there, and we
can do that now, let’s give that a shot. I’m going to jump back to the browser and
what I’ll do here is highlight all of the styles. So notice I’m starting from where
this bracket begins and ending this selection before the ending bracket, and then I can
right-click and copy and then I’ll jump back to the editor and I’ll paste right inside
this style section, and I’ll save this. Now we can jump back to the browser and refresh,
and you see that all of our changes persist because we have it in the style tag inside
of our code right here. Now the style property is very useful but in general it’s not the
way that we want to apply styles in our HTML, for a couple of reasons. The first is the one that should be kind of
obvious here, which is that as we get longer styles it becomes harder and harder to tell
what our HTML structure is. We could remove all of the extra lines in order to make this
all one line but then it would be even harder to read, and if you imagine HTML elements
nested in other HTML elements this is going to start to get a bit unwieldy. But that’s not the biggest reason why we don’t
use the style tag. The biggest problem is when we want to reuse styles. So let’s say
we have three heading two tags and we can simulate that by copying this H2 tag and pasting
it in here a couple times, so now we have three of them. I’ll save this and we’ll go
to the browser and refresh. So you’ll see qualities three times. Okay, all is good so far, right? Well let’s
say now we want to change the letter spacing in all three of these. Because we’re just
a little bit short of what we want and we’d rather extend it out a little bit, what will
we need to do? Well we have to go back into our code and
we’re going to need to change it in three different places: so letter spacing here,
letter spacing here and letter spacing here. Now that doesn’t seem like a huge deal because
we only have three headings and they’re all right next to each other. But when we’re done with this template the
H2 tags are going to be distributed throughout a whole bunch of other HTML code, and it’s
going to be a surprising amount of work trying to find all of the headings that use this
style in order to modify it. So ultimately we’ll end up using something
called a selector in order to tell the browser which elements get certain styles, instead
of putting the styles in-line with the element. Let’s do that. So if you remember from before
when we were explaining why we use the HTML head-body structure inside of our document
part of it was that our head is useful for other things besides just the title, and one
of them is for putting styles in it. So what we’ll start with is a starting style
tag, and we’ll just go ahead and end that as well, so we don’t forget, and then within
the style tag we’re going to use a selector. I’ll go ahead and type out the selector now
and then explain what it means. Okay, so what we have here is H2 which you
should be familiar with by now, it’s our heading two tag, and so we’re saying with this selector
that we want to apply any styles that are inside of these curly brackets to H2 tags.
We could put any tag here if we wanted and we can do a lot more with selectors which
you’ll see shortly in this series. So now, instead of having our styles here,
let’s cut out these styles and we’ll paste it inside this selector. Notice how everything
gets indented properly – this is another benefit of using an IDE, instead of a plain text editor. And now that we have this we can remove the
style tag from all of our H2s. Okay, let’s save it and jump back to the browser and refresh,
and you’ll notice that nothing changed here. Down here, instead of all of the styles appearing
in element dot style, we’re seeing it inside of this selector, and we can demonstrate very
quickly how powerful it is to be using a selector instead. So let’s say we wanted to change the color
to blue. So I’m going to highlight the value and type in blue, and you can see that the
styles change across all of our headers at once. So hopefully you can see the power of switching
from using the style property to using the style tag and specifying selectors to apply
styles too. Now like I said we can do a lot more with selectors and we’ll need to in just
a few steps in order to get what we need. But for now this is pretty good.

This Ancient Mammal’s Ears Were Built for Chewing

This Ancient Mammal’s Ears Were Built for Chewing


[♪ INTRO] Last week in the journal Nature, researchers
announced that they’ve found a new fossil that might
help us understand one of the most unique features of mammals:
our ears. Also, the little guy is, like, really cute… so there’ that. Called Jeholbaatar kielanae, this animal was
found by paleontologists in Northeast China. It lived in the Cretaceous period, about 120
million years ago, and it likely ate things like bugs and plants. It was pretty small, not much bigger than
a mouse. Though technically it wasn’t a rodent. It’s what’s known as a multituberculate, a different mammal group that was pretty successful until they died out about 34 million years
ago. So that’s neat — it’s always fun to
find new fossil species. But this fossil was also special because its ear bones had been preserved. Besides signature adaptations like producing
milk or having fur, mammals — including humans
— are also have unique, complex middle ear bones. These three little bones, called the malleus,
incus, and stapes, help transfer sound from the eardrum to the
cochlea. Reptiles, in contrast, typically only have
one bone in their ears, the stapes. Thanks to our unique set-up, mammals have
superb hearing, able to detect much higher frequencies than
other land animals. But these bones are also a bit of an evolutionary
mystery. We know two of them, the malleus and incus, evolved from bones in our jaws. But eventually, they moved to our ears, and we don’t fully understand why. Just because they’re helping us hear better
now doesn’t mean that was the original evolutionary
pressure that got them moving. And fossil evidence suggests this actually
happened more than once, independently each time. Researchers have proposed a few ideas for why middle ears evolved. Perhaps they really did improve hearing right
from the get-go. Or maybe the moving bones were a side effect of larger brains reshaping the skull. But the evolution of Jeholbaatar’s ears may actually have had more to do with its
diet. Because Jeholbaatar is so old, scientists
were able to spot one bone seemingly caught in
transition from being part of the jaw to being part of
the ear. Analyzing the shape and placement of the bones, the scientists came to the conclusion that
the shift wasn’t a result of the brain changing the
shape of the skull or other ideas. Instead, by moving up towards the ears, the bone was essentially getting out of the
way of its chewing. This let Jeholbataar move its jaws in a unique, forwards-and-backwards motion. This improved grinding power, and made it
easier for the animal to hear over the sound of its
own noshing. This doesn’t necessarily explain how our own middle ears developed. Jeholbaatar’s group is a cousin to our mammal
group, not an ancestor, and we don’t chew the same
way they did. But it does represent an interesting new hypothesis for how jaw bones can become ears. And it might help explain why multituberculates were so successful for so long. In more modern news, scientists publishing
in the journal Science Translational Medicine have found
that starting HIV treatment within hours of birth may help
HIV-positive newborns. HIV can be passed from an infected parent to their unborn child, and it can be fatal
or cause serious, irreversible damage to the baby’s immune
system. The World Health Organization recommends that doctors start treatments that can control
the infection within just weeks of birth. This new study suggests starting treatment
even earlier, within hours rather than weeks, might be even
better. The researchers, working in Botswana, started
treating a group of ten HIV-positive newborns with
antiviral drugs just hours after they’d been born. They then tracked the children over the course
of two years, taking periodic blood samples and comparing
them to another group of ten babies who received the currently accepted treatment regimen. The blood samples allowed the scientists to
examine traces of the virus within the DNA of the
children’s immune cells. They were able to watch how the infection evolved and changed, as well as how their
bodies were responding to the infection. They found that starting the antiretrovirals
earlier resulted in better immune system responses
and signs of a reduction in something called the viral
reservoir. Typically, when the virus infects a cell,
it hijacks the cell’s machinery and starts producing
new copies of itself. However, some cells go into a resting state
instead, where they don’t produce new copies of the
virus. Those resting cells are effectively hidden from medicines targeting the virus. These cells can lay dormant for years before
turning back on. This hidden cache of the virus makes up the
viral reservoir. By peeking at the traces of viral DNA in immune
cells, the scientists could essentially gauge the
size of the reservoir. They found that shortly before the babies
turned two, the ones that got the earlier treatment had
very low levels when compared to the infants that received
the standard regime. The scientists think follow-up studies might
find even more beneficial effects later on in life. Now, you might think it seems obvious that more medicine earlier is better. But when people’s lives are on the line, scientists have to show that treatments are
effective. This study seems to do that. There are still some barriers, though. The study was pretty small. Starting HIV treatment earlier on a large
scale could represent a huge logistical challenge and require innovations in diagnosis and infrastructure. Remember, we’re talking about catching it
within hours, sometimes in places with very limited resources. But these results show that this change could
have real, dramatic benefits for some of the world’s
most vulnerable populations. And if nothing else, the scientific insights
from this study, about precisely how the newborn immune system responds to the virus, could help optimize
or tailor future treatments. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
News, which was brought to you with the help of
our amazing President of Space, Matthew Brant! You too could become President of Space by joining our awesome community of supporters over on patreon.com/scishow. AND before you go, we want to show you these
neat lunar calendars now available over on DFTBA.com! They’ll help you keep track of the phases
of the moon for all of 2020, so you can stay astronomically
informed. You can grab one now. [♪ OUTRO]

WordPress Post Vs Page

WordPress Post Vs Page


Hello and welcome to another video in our WordPress series I’m going to quickly explain the difference between posts and pages in WordPress Because often WordPress beginners get confused between posts and pages by default WordPress comes with two content types Posts and pages, as a beginner you are probably wondering What is the difference between them it seems to have similar fields in the dashboard it seems to look the same on the website Why do I need both? When should I use posts? And when should I use pages? In this video I’m going to explain the difference between posts and pages in WordPress If you’re using WordPress as a blog then you will end up using posts for a majority of your site’s content posts are content entries listed in reverse chronological order on your blogs home page Due to their reverse order your posts are meant to be timely older posts are Archived based on month and year as the post gets older the deeper the user has to dig to find it You have the option to organize your posts based on categories and tags Because WordPress posts are published with time and date in mind They are syndicated through the RSS feeds this allows your readers to be notified of the most recent post update via RSS feeds bloggers can use the feeds to deliver email broadcasts through services like Aweber or MailChimp You can create a daily and weekly newsletter for the audience to subscribe to, the very timely nature of posts make it extremely social You can use one of the many social sharing plugins to allow your users to share your posts in social media networks like Twitter Facebook Google+ LinkedIn and so on posts encourage conversation they have a built in commenting feature That allows users to comment on a particular topic Pages pages are meant to be static one-off type content such as your about page privacy policy Legal disclaimers and so on while the WordPress database stores the published date of the page Pages are timeless entities for example your about page is not supposed to expire Sure, you can go back and make updates to it But chances are you’re not going to have an about page 2012 because there is no time and date tied to pages They are not launched in your RSS feeds by default you can have sub pages within a page This feature allows you to organize your pages together and even assign a custom template to them key differences between posts and pages Posts are timely and pages are timeless Posts are social posts can be categorized posts are included in RSS feeds and pages are not a frequently asked question is are there any SEO advantages to one or the other Search engines like content to be organized Timeless content is considered to be more important however There is a lot of priority given to the latest timely content In short there may be a difference but as a beginner you do not need to worry about it focus on making your site organized for the user SEO or search engine optimization Is a whole video in itself and we have a great one if you’d like to learn all about it You’re going to love the rest of this video series where we will really dive into getting the most out of your wordpress sites With more plugins and WordPress tricks this will help you to really connect with your visitors I hope you enjoyed this video, and if you did, please give it a quick like and share it with your friends Thank you, and see you in the next video

PHP Tutorial – 04 – Operators

PHP Tutorial – 04 – Operators


In this section we’ll look at the operators
in PHP, that are used to operate on values. There are basically five types: arithmetic,
assignment, comparison, logical, and bitwise operators. First, we have the four basic arithmetic operations,
as well as modulus to get the division remainder. The equal sign itself is an assignment operator
to assign a value to a variable. A common use of the assignment and arithmetic operators
is to operate on a variable and then to save the result back into that same variable. These
operations can be shortened with the combined assignment operators. Another common operation is to increment or
decrement a variable by one. This can be simplified with one of the increment (++) and decrement
(–) operators. The effect on the variable is identical whether we use the post or pre
operator, but a post-increment returns the original value before it increments, while
the pre-operator increments first and then returns the value. Note that expressions are normally evaluated
from left to right. However different operators also have different precedents, For example,
the multiplication sign binds harder then addition and is therefore evaluated first.
To avoid having to learn the precedents of all operators we can instead use parenthesis
to decide what part of the expression will be evaluated first. Next, there’s the comparison operators that
compares two values and returns either true or false. Notice the three equal signs (===)
for comparing both the value and data type. Used together with these we have the logical
operators. And/or (&&/||) can combine several comparison operators. And the not operator
(!) can invert the result. Finally, The bitwise operators work on the
binary representation of integers. For example, the xor operator (^) turn on the bits that
are set on one side but not on both.

how to make fixed positioned footer in CSS and HTML tutorial

how to make fixed positioned footer in CSS and HTML tutorial


Hello and welcome to another new episode of
learning simplified. Guys in this tutorial we have to make some
long steps, that’s why we are cutting it short and we
will be jumping straight to our next tutorials. In this context I would like to say that this
is the final part of the tutorial and after this, the advanced css3
tutorial will be ended and we will be proceeding forward what’s our next tutorial, and that
is why we are engaging into a long leap into this tutorial and I assumed
that you have gained sufficient enough knowledge to understand each and every part of this
segment… This is actually this stylesheet.CSS and inside
it, first of all we need to do we need to create a footer-wrapper. Let’s provide a height to this certain parameter
and after that we will be changing it to auto,
but first of all, let it be provided such that we can see what happens next. And for this background condition… Get back
to our template first of all let’s pick up the colour code,this is the first colour….. And this is the standard syntax, this is the
last one, always comes beneath, underneath. Now the footer we have taken here the width
is 100%, footer wrapper, and its height is 100px and its background is this one. So now let’s get back to
index.HTML. For a special purpose, we will keep this div
element outside the outwrapper. This is being used for a special purpose. We will be seeing what it does. Now this is the website practically that has
been created so far. All we have to do ways to press control +
s and reload. And we can see there’s a 100% wrapper, like
this one. This is a 100% rapper and the same thing is
being observed, appearing over here. Now if we look into a template we can see
that there is a menu bar which is lying almost at the center. All we need to do we need to break the footer
element into two, into three parts actually, the parent div and its to subsequent child
divs, and this time we are not applying any float left or float right condition. All we need to do we need to place it in just
an upside down condition this is what we are going to do, first of all, we are going
to take a wrapper which is at a width of 800px or 900px for say. So let’s take the wrapper first which will
be centrally aligned. And the next thing that we have to do in this
case is to align it into the central position. For that we know what to do. we know the drill. All
we have to do here is to place the margin 0 auto condition. Now let’s copy this thing and let’s call another
div inside this div wrapper, and we are providing div
class as ‘footer content’ over here. We can see that A 900px footer element, ‘footer
content’ actually appears into this footer wrapper. So all we need to do now we
need to create two footer elements inside this footer content div. So let’s get back to stylesheet.CSS, and we
are creating two divs over here….. And in the same
manner all I am doing, I am creating practically another div for the bottom part. There it is. Now let’s get back to your project, and inside
this ‘footer content’ part, we are just calling those class names
over here.. Now let’s just press control + s, get back
to our project and reload and we can see that.. I think two
distinct, separate background colours will positively highlight the context in this case. So let’s get back to our stylesheet.CSS and
here, instead of #666, we provide the background colour as #CCC. Now let’s get back to our project and reload
and we can see that this is the top menu part and this is the bottom menu part,
which has been represented over here. All we need to do we need to create a menu
bar in this top most position, we are just assuming that there won’t be any spaces
provided for any kind of future purposes so all we’re doing now we are just providing,
we are just creating another div under this menuholder name…. We have taken
the width of this div as 800px and we actually taken the views of the main footer content
top menuholder part as 900px. That means there will be a 100px difference
from its parent div. That is why what we need to do we need to
create of Central alignment, and in that case or purpose, I think that margin 0 auto condition
will be the best suited condition in this particular
case. So let’s get back to index.html and inside
this top menu holder we are doing now, we are creating this.. Let’s get back and reload and we can see that
the same div has been created over here. So this is the thing up to this part, now
the thing that is left here is to create that particular part, that particular
menu bar which we can see here, this is the menu bar. So now all we need to do we need to get back
to our stylesheet, first of all get back to index.HTML and inside
here, you may create our menu bar item. Another thing, whenever you are creating a
tag all you need to do you need to end the tag. If it is a container tag then you need to
end that tag immediately. This is a prior thing that you have to emphasize,
that you have to concentrate on, rules there could be some misleading errors,
some mistakes of unclosing the tags or those short of mistakes. The next thing is creating the list items.. Now all we
need to do we need to customize this unordered list and menu items that we have coded so
far. So get back to style sheet.CSS and another
thing, to Remember that is an ordered list is practically under this
footer-content-top-menuholder-menu-content. So everything will be named under this particular
selector name. So let’s get
back to stylesheet. CSS. Now it’s a matter of calculation. It is 800px and there are five menu items. So each individual list item should be at
a width of 160px. So
this is what we are going to allocate over here. Don’t make it 160px, make it 158px cause we
need to provide border-right element over here, as we can see here are
some border-right elements. Now all we need to do we need to press Control
+ s and get back to our project, and reload and now we can see that this thing is appearing
over here. We need to change the font colour here.. Reload and you can see that it is changed
over here. Now the border right elements. We need to take care of this border rights. So the next thing, first of all remove all
those background colours those have been provided over here, so I am removing those background
colours… there it is, so far. So we have created them. Now the problem is, font size. Font size is very small here as you can see,
so all we need to do we need to create the font size, and another thing we need to change
the font family too. Font size is matched. Now let’s change this font family. there it is. So get back to your project, reload and we
can see at the font-family is now changed. So we have successfully created this menu
bar and created all of the contents inside the footer except this last border right we
can see that there’s no border right at the Last Child element, so we too don’t need any
border right in this Last Child element and hence, we are getting back and… As we can see that the border right is now
gone. Another thing if you look into a template
you will see a particular gap from the top. This is the thing that we
need to mention, that we need to remember. So that is why all we need to do, heights,
those Heights provided over there, we need to comment it out now.. And we can
see that the gap is now on and instead of padding top, provide it has 5px 0 that means
weapons from the top and bottom it will be leaving a total padding of 5px and
from left and right, under both this condition in both direction it will be leaving none. Press control + s, get back to your project,reload
and you can see that this gap has been created over here. Now let’s match with our template, here it
is.. If you want to increase the padding you may
increase it anytime.. Footer-wrapper. The height is still 100px. So we need to clear it off and now it is,
there is no height anymore. Let’s get back to index.html, and here at
the bottom property name, all we need to do we need to
create a header tag, per say, I am creating and H3 header tag. Now it is just in position as we can see,
we need to place it in a central position, so just get back
to stylesheet.css and inside this footer-content-bottom-property-name all you need to do here is to customize the
property… So as you can see over here, the template
is been created. Another thing, the last thing of this tutorial,
if you want to make the footer element into a
fixed position, all you need to do you need to go to this footer-wrapper… No here comes the actual wit. Why did I particularly asked you to provide
an outwrapper over here? Now you will see the purpose of this outwrapper
and why did we placed this footer element outside this outwrapper. If you carefully look into your created
or built website, you can see that it is not stretching down enough, the bottom part of
this featured products or form elements are not being visible as this footer
item is practically in a fixed position with respect to the web page. So all we need to do now we need to provide
a particular space or gap from the bottom such that
bottom of every element is visible to users. So we need to get back to outwrapper and all
we need to mention… It was 50px no? no it was a 100px I think….okay, so
we are leaving a gap of a total of 60px, and we need to see what is happening here, just
leave it and we can see that it is living, which were being suppressed under
this footer element, it is now being visible, getting visible over here and the only amendment
that we have to do over here is in this outwrapper position. We just
changed its syntax,command from margin-bottom 0 or nothing to margin-bottom 60px and that
is why it is getting visible to us. First of all zoom out and you can see
that on zooming out the footer element is sticking at the bottom of this webpage, laying
at the same bottom position where it should be, such that the position is
fixed over there. So guys that is the thing that we have to
share in this tutorial. We have created a particular website, we have
created a complete website along with form elements,
along with some images and captions, along with dropdown menu bar, we have seen the hovering
property of images with some less background opacity – the main and the
basic thing is every time you are approaching to create your own template, then all you
need to do is first of all, before doing anything, this is the main purpose
of the website, the first thing is all you need to do, you need to create a motherwrapper
that will hold all the contents inside. This is practically the basics. Get back here and deactivate this comment,
and if we now reload we can see that each and everything is coming inside this outwrapper. That means I have created an
outwrapper first and then I have wrapped up everything, every content inside this outrapper
. This is the first thing, then you need to move on creating your
contents. In the next tutorial we will be talking about
mobile responsiveness. If we press just control + shift + m, and
if we look into our mobile browser preview, we can
see that there is a horizontal scroller appearing at the bottom of your web page. This is inevitable in case of a mobile device. If you have liked or tutorial then do not
hesitate to hit that red subscribe button. Hope to see you guys in or next tutorial. Till then, bye.

Greenhouse Effect | #aumsum

Greenhouse Effect | #aumsum


Greenhouse Effect. What happened? Why are you shivering? No sun rays. Before. I will go and check what happened. What happened? Now. Before. Sun. Earth. Greenhouse gases. Sun rays. The sun’s rays warm the earth. A part of the sun’s rays is absorbed by the earth. A part of the sun’s rays is reflected back in space. Greenhouse gases. A part of reflected rays is trapped by greenhouse gases. The trapped radiations of the sun warm the earth. Carbon dioxide. Methane. Nitrous oxide. Greenhouse gases. Why are they called greenhouse gases? Don’t worry. I will explain to you. Have you ever seen a greenhouse in a nursery? No. Ok. I will show you. Nursery. In a greenhouse, the sun’s heat can come in. but cannot go out. The trapped heat warms the greenhouse. It is very hot inside here. This trapped heat helps in controlled growth of plants. In a greenhouse, the sun’s heat can come in but cannot go out. The trapped heat warms the greenhouse. Similarly, as these gases trap the sun’s heat, they are called greenhouses gases. If there were no greenhouse gases to trap the sun’s radiation the earth would be a very cold place where we would not survive. Where are the greenhouse gases? Greenhouse gases party. What are you doing here? The earth needs you. Thank you. This trapping of heat to keep the earth warm is called greenhouse effect. Thank you. The End.